Peter Forde, B.Sc. - A Scientific scrutiny of OT 3
(revised June 1996)

Html'ized by Cornelius Krasel and Karin Spaink.

Updated and HTML errors corrected in 2003 by Mike Gormez.

  1. Introduction
    1. Abstract (a brief resume of this paper)
    2. Why check Hubbard's OT3 statement?
    3. "OT3 summarised
    4. General notes on modern geology
  2. The OT3 information as checked
    1. Volcano list - Asia and Pacific
      1. North Japan, South Japan
      2. Krakajawia (Krakatau)
      3. Indonesia
      4. Philippines
      5. Himalayas
      6. Hawaii (implant centre)
      7. Andes
      8. Mount Washington
      9. Mount Ranier (Rainier), Mount Hood, Mount Shasta
      10. San Gorgonio
    2. Volcano list - Atlantic
      1. Tangier
      2. St. Helena
      3. Kolomonjero (Kilimanjaro)
      4. Las Palmas (Canary Islands) (implant centre)
      5. Canada
    3. Other Information given
      1. The search for explosion traces
      2. Human and other life 75M.years ago
  3. Summary and interpretation of findings
    1. Summary of findings
    2. Analysis of Dianetics based on my findings
    3. Analysis of Scientology based on my findings
    4. Coercion, progression and criminal racketeering
  4. Reference data
    1. Hubbard's own admissions re OT3
    2. Credits
    3. Geological Time Chart
I hereby wish to withdraw my earlier (November 1994) version of this paper due to errors in my analysis. This updated replacement more closely references Scientology's claims for Dianetics and OT3, and the geological scrutiny is more thorough.

Written by Peter Forde B.Sc.

Copyright (C) 1994, Peter Forde; revised version, Copyright (C) 7th June 1996, Peter Forde. This document may be freely reproduced on a not-for-profits basis. For other uses you are requested to obtain prior permission from the author. Note that "Section III OT", "OT3", "Scientology", "L.Ron Hubbard", "Dianetics", "E-meter" and other scientology words are trademark and belong to COSRECI.

1 Introduction

1.1: Abstract (a brief resume of this paper)

The "Section III OT" or OT3 materials as written by L. Ron Hubbard in late 1966 are a key action of Scientology, and remain in used to-date as a heavily promoted and very expensive course (over 3000 British Pounds). The materials revolve around a statement of traumatic events "recalled" by Hubbard that we all supposedly share in our past, which occurred on earth 75 million years ago. OT3 applies "Dianetics", which is claimed to be a science of mental health, to in effect exorcise multitudes of demons suffering from this trauma that have thereby been caused to stick to and affect the individual. My paper checks Hubbard's statement of the OT3 events against the known geological record for the time, finding 16 of the 18 places on the volcano list didn't exist then, and that other available evidence decisively contradicts the general story.

The evolution of Dianetics was checked-over since it was running fictitious recalls on OT3. I found this technology had been developed from the start such as to encourage false memories.

Inspection of the activity of OT3 reveals that it cannot be functioning in the benign way advertised, and comprises a set of disguised cognitive-procedural training actions to achieve:

In considering statements from Hubbard himself, I discovered he had admitted the fiction of OT3, that he invented Dianetics to prepare the way for running fictional traumas, that his aim was to make money, and that he'd laid an enchantment that was concealed by dividing people within themselves.

My overall conclusion based on results of my check on the OT3 details, my analyses of Dianetics and Scientology, and Hubbard's own admissions, is that OT3 is an invalid action for any of religion, science, training college or business, but is valid as criminal racketeering.

1.2: Why check Hubbard's OT3 statement?

Scientology claims to be any of science, business or religion, according whether trying to impress people, charge money, or hide behind some tax-exempt divine right of religions to do and say whatever they please with nobody having the right to criticize them. Since Scientology and its sub-study Dianetics both claim to be sciences, and both as science and religion directly invites scrutiny and comment, I can and should make scrutiny as a scientist.

I see good reasons why this scrutiny should be made:

1.3: OT3 summarised

OT3 is a secret, senior level within Scientology that can only be done after many other courses, by which time the client is well prepared, well behaved and ready to, if not believe, at least work with anything Hubbard says as being truth, ignoring all evidence to the contrary. People are not suckers to have been conditioned in this way, but have been ushered through many successive plausible small steps and changes, each one acceptable by itself, but progressing towards enchantment with past life recalls, a shut-down of critical thoughts, alienation from outside opinion and a turning-towards and eventual unquestioning acceptance of Hubbard's imposed belief system.

OT stands for "Operating Thetan" where "thetan" is Scientology jargon for "soul", and "Operating" is supposed to mean "At cause over life, thought, matter, energy, space and time". The 3 means that this is the third in the series of courses.

OT3 mainly concerns a supposed "Incident II" happening 75 Million years ago, when Xenu an officer in charge of the 76 local planets of the "Galactic Confederation", solved overpopulation by mass exterminations, mostly by shootings. The souls of those killed were collected together using super cold, transported to volcanoes on earth (he gives a list of these and they are checked out in this paper), H-bombed at the volcanoes, collected up again using electronic ribbons and transported to Hawaii or Las Palmas. They were there subjected to 36 days of hypnotic "implants" using films and simple apparatus, which in their already shocked state was supposedly very effective and kept them clustered together and trapped on earth as demons.

We are each supposed to contain large numbers of these traumatised and grouped souls stuck around our bodies like some sort of spiritual "fleas" (Hubbard's term). The OT3 processing consists of beaming a narrowly focussed attention onto clusters of souls to communicate with and separate them, then get individual souls to recall the volcano they were blown up at etc. which by Dianetics theory releases them from the trauma. If the souls resist recalling the "Incident II" killings, bombings and hypnosis, then "Incident 1" is supposed to be offered for recall instead.

"Incident I" is time-stamped at 4 quadrillion years ago, and here I quote in full:

(Thetan = soul = spiritual "flea" = "demon").

If even "Incident I" won't work, then the Scientologist is doing something wrong and his Dianetics procedures are checked-over. If even then the Scientologist fails to get results, he is condemned as having lied about completing previous courses and required to do the entire series of over 20 courses and counselling from beginning Scientologist onwards all over again.

The end result of OT3 is variously declared to be "freedom from overwhelm", also "No Body thetans left".

1.4: General notes on modern geology

Geologists express time in Mega-years (M.y.) and don't usually refer to time numerically, but classify into a framework of global events, using stages of increasing detail (see back of this document). Thus the "Incident II" given unequivocally by Hubbard at 75-74 M.y. ago, sits within the Mesozoic Era (251 to 65 M.y. ago), Late Cretaceous Period (97 M.y. to 65 M.y. ago), Maestrichtian Epoch (circa 70 M.y. ago). Incident 1 sits long before the beginning of time at the Big Bang and thus has no geological classification.

In late 1966 when Hubbard wrote his full OT3 story, the scientific community was working to Static Crust theory. This held that the earth was slowly cooling, and as it did so it contracted and wrinkled up like a dried prune, thus evolving mountains and seas. Mountains and locations by this theory were essentially old, static and unmoving, and thus it would seem valid to project existing mountains and volcanoes back as existing even 75 M.y. ago. Hubbard was not to know that Plate Tectonics theory, being proved valid just 2 years later and explaining and predicting hitherto unexplainable phenomena, would prompt an explosion of renewed confidence, interest and research in geology, and its this bounty of detailed new knowledge that enables scrutiny to be made. Recent information published since my November 1994 version of this scrutiny enables checking the Philippines, Indonesia and Canada.

Plate Tectonics holds that the earth's crust comprises a set of plates floating on a mobile Mantle. Its at the margins of these plates that we get earthquake activity and frequently volcanism or mountains. Oceanic crust emanates at (usually undersea) spreading ridges and disappears into the Mantle again at deep ocean trenches, and the continents move about in the process. The cause of plate movements and volcanism is a complex thermal - chemical gravitational engine, but some conceptual grasp can be obtained by picturing convection cells within the earth's mantle.

There are several varieties of evidence that work together to date rocks and piece together the geological jigsaw puzzle.

One variety of evidence is used to cross-check and calibrate other varieties of evidence, and a consistent interplay has emerged that imparts excellent confidence. As a general rule the more recent the geological paper that I've managed to reference, the more accurate its report.

2 The OT3 information as checked...

2.1: Volcano list - Asia and Pacific

This is the volcano list contained within the OT3 statement. I have done a little rearranging and grouping of list items for clarity of presentation, original sequence restored in the summary.

2.1.1: North Japan, South Japan

North Japan, meaning Hokkaido. South Japan, meaning the Japanese mainland of Honshu, and the smaller islands of Shikoku and Kyushu. Around the time of interest, the Kula ridge subducted under the mainland, resulting in an unusually widespread zone of volcanism. The zone eventually extended to 3,000 km in width, and ranged from the Ryoke metamorphic belt in Japan to Lake Baikal, and along the east coast of Asia from the Bering Strait to South China. [1]

S. Maruyama, T. Seno [2] show how at 85 M.y. the Japanese islands were no more than a narrow continental east-facing fore-arc ridge which extended from Korea north into China. It wasn't until about 30-12 M.y. ago that intra-arc rifting separated and rotated the Japanese islands from mainland Asia to form the Sea of Japan, possibly by action of the submerged Kula Ridge. Most of the Japanese land mass has formed in post-Mesozoic times, and is the result of island collisions, fore-arc accretion and volcanism.

In summary Hubbard has distinguished North Japan and South Japan as volcano ranges when at the time they were indistinguishable from each-other or the South-East Asian mainland, with volcanism ranging much further afield than proto-Japan. Thus these are very inept descriptions for volcanoes in the area 75 M.y. ago.

2.1.2: Krakajawia (Krakatau)

Krakatau, misspelled Krakajawia by Hubbard, is situated between Sumatra and Java in Indonesia, and forms part of the volcanic arc of a subduction zone as the Indian Plate, carrying Australia and India, moves towards the northeast.

It is part of the Indonesian island arc system, where zones of volcanism can be shown to have formed and moved gradually southward much more recently than 75 M.y. ago following the standard pattern of migrating and growing island arc systems [3].

Krakatau exploded towards the end of last century, with such violence and amount of debris that it caused bad weather globally for several years afterwards.

This volcano is new, and Hubbard was mistaken to name it as existing 75 M.y. ago. Its mention hints towards dramatic imagination at work, and the sloppy spelling hints at contempt for the reader.

2.1.3: Indonesia

The Indonesian Island Arc is a subduction-related island arc system [3]. It comprises Sumatra, Java, a string of islands through to New Guinea, Southern Borneo, islands with Halmahera at the North.

Part of Sumatra is thought to have rifted from New Guinea in Jurassic times. There was a collision between an island arc system and mainland Sumatra 50-30 M.y. ago. The Sunda subduction zone with its concomitant volcanism, running from Sumatra through to Sumbawa, has been active only since this time.

The subduction system in Java arose no earlier than 30 M.y. ago, and if I read correctly the sediments that form it were underwater until a northward migrating island arc collided with and subducted under it about that time, causing uplift.

The Java Sea is quite young, thus Java and Celebes were not independent islands.

Eastern Java, Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa and Flores expose only island arc rocks of less than 23.5 M.y. age.

The island of Timor comprises an accretionary wedge accumulating on continental crust and experienced uplift in Quaternary times, less than 2 M.y. ago.

Sunda also experienced uplift from the sea in Quaternary or later times, possibly due to a crustal fragment in front of Australia subducted beneath the fore-arc basin.

Borneo was part of the Chinese mainland.

I conclude that Celebes and part of Sumatra existed 75 Ma ago, along with other islands that have since accreted to continental mainlands. Java, Sumbawa, Sumba, Bali, Lombok, Flores and Timor arose much more recently, and these form most of the present-day volcanic arc.

My overall conclusion is that proto-Indonesian islands were non-existent or unrecognizable for the time of interest, and that therefore Hubbard was mistaken.

2.1.4: Philippines

The Philippines comprises Luzon to the North, with islands meandering to Mindanao to the South. The area represents a triple plate junction of the Pacific/Philippine, Eurasian and Indo-Australian plates, with several micro-plates also involved. Plate movements have been complex, and several interpretations and models are in contention [27].

Overall the Philippines Trench is new and the subducting Philippines oceanic plate hasn't travelled far, and shows no volcanism south of Leyte [3]. Thus volcanism now present in the Northern Philippines started recently.

Halmahera is a far-travelled Pacific island, now colliding with the Sangihe island arc as the Molucca plate sinks from between. Since Halmahera travelled some distance, it wasn't part of the Philippines at our time of interest. The suture between these arcs is visible in Mindanao. The Western side of the suture, including Borneo was a part of the Chinese mainland in Mid-Tertiary, (c. 30 M.y.) when the South China Sea started to open. Oldest dates for Southern Phillipines formations give Cretaceous, meaning the Southern Philippines did not exist at the time of interest.

In summary I conclude that none of the particular islands forming the Philippines were islands in the area 75 M.y. ago, and that Hubbard was therefore mistaken.

2.1.5: Himalayas

The Himalayas are a young mountain range resulting from crustal shortening and thickening due to continuing northward movement of the Indian Plate, after its collision 55-40 M.y. ago with the Eurasian Plate [4].

Logically there was strong volcanism at island arcs and continental subduction zones during the Late Cretaceous as the Tethys Ocean closed rapidly, but these volcanoes were not situate at anything resembling the present site of the Himalayas, which is the result of shortening of hundreds of kilometres of continental crust, and includes substantial island material [4].

Mention of the Himalayas is far too inept a description for the area for 75 M.y. ago, and Hubbard was mistaken to use this name to locate either volcanoes or a mountain chain.

2.1.6: Hawaii (Implant centre)

Hawaii located in the Central North Pacific, is a key location for Hubbard's OT3 statement as this was one of the two sites where souls H-bombed at volcanoes were supposedly transported for hypnotic implantation.

Hawaii is the latest of a long line of volcanic piles, the Emperor-Hawaiian chain, to have erupted as the Pacific Plate moved northwards over a relatively stationary mantle plume or hot spot [5]. The Emperor-Hawaiian piles were thrown up in succession, with Meiji Seamount the earliest, and Hawaii (and Loihi seamount) the latest and still erupting. The direction change that distinguishes the Hawaiian / Emperor chains is (controversially) conjectured as resulting from tectonic jostling with collision of the Indian plate against Eurasia 55-40 M.Y. ago.

In Geology, Hawaii is too young to date since it hasn't finished erupting yet. According to Microsoft Encarta, Kilauea has been erupting ever since 1983.. The nearest inactive volcanic island in the chain is Maui, 230 km from Loihi, which is dated at 1.63 +- 0.03 M.y., and it is fair to conclude that the Hawaiian volcanic pile has arisen since this time.

If there had been an island at the present site of Hawaii 75-74 M.y. ago, it could only have been Meiji Guyot, an undersea mountain now situate at 164.42E 53N, and aged by K-Ar dating at 74 +- 3 M.y.. [6]. Study of drilling core samples from Meiji's summit indicates that the volcanic pile didn't build sufficiently to reach the surface, but built sufficiently to rise and remain above the "Carbonate Compensation Depth" and thus accumulate carbonate sediments. (Below the CCD, sediments tend to dissolve back into the water) Meiji surfaced to become an island for awhile somewhere between 56.5 and 35.5 M.y. ago, and the surface then eroded down to Maestrichtian (c. 74 M.y.) sediments before re-submerging. Meiji must have been well underwater to have accumulated these microscopic-sized Maestrichtian marine sediments.

I conclude that there was nothing but ocean at the present site of Hawaii 75 M.y. ago, and Hubbard was mistaken to name this place as a supposed centre for distribution and "implanting" of souls. What puzzles me is that the age-progression of the Hawaiian-Emperor chain and geological youth of Hawaii have been well known for over a century... Was Hubbard's geological knowledge really so deficient, or was he mocking his readers' credulousness?

2.1.7: Andes

The Andes on the Western edge of South America are at a subduction zone for the Nazca oceanic plate as it moves Eastwards, and the South American plate moves Westwards carried with opening of the South Atlantic. It was and remains a major part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, and was volcanic at the time of interest 75 M.y. ago.

The geology of the Andes demands involved study to get any sort of detailed picture, but broadly speaking was not so much in the form of high mountains as cordillera or archipelagos of islands, such as we see in the southern part of South America now [25]. Volcanism was located further eastward than now.

In the Western zones we tend to find Cretaceous deep-water sediments, with the whole of the present Andean system covered by up to 12,000 metres of this, with some tuff present to indicate island volcanism.

The Eastern zone represents a gravity-thrust zone as continuing underplating and uplift is compensated by slumping sideways. Continuing erosion has exhumed Paleozoic and older rock formations. By naming the 7000 km long Andes, and not being more specific, Hubbard was not entirely wrong, but the area was sea with some islands, not the present mountain ranges.

2.1.8 Mount Washington

There are two Mount Washingtons in the United States, one is in New Hampshire at 44.17N 71.19W in the Appalachian mountain range. This range formed during the late Palaeozoic era, the Alleghenian orogeny of middle Permian, circa 270 M.y. ago. Activity, including volcanism in that area had long ceased by the time of interest [7].

The other Mount Washington is in Massachusets USA at 42.07N, 73.28W, in the Berkshire Hills. This also is a stable cratonic area free from volcanism since the Palaeozoic ended 251 M.y. ago.

From the information available to me, there was no volcanism at any Mount Washington 75 M.y. ago, and Hubbard was therefore mistaken. A possible explanation for this strange name could be imagination, since Washington was the first president of the United States.

2.1.9: Mount Ranier (Rainier), Mount Hood, Mount Shasta

Mount Rainier is situate in Washington State, USA,46.8N 122.25W , 14,400 ft high, and forms part of the Middle Cascade Mountains [7]. Mount Hood is situate in Oregon, USA 45.24N 121.41W, is 11,250 ft high and also forms part of the Middle Cascade Mountains.

Both of these volcanoes are currently active. None of the lava in the anticline that these volcanoes sit on is more than 65 M.y, and the volcano cones themselves are Quaternary, less than 1.6 M.y. at oldest. Underneath the lava anticline is about a 3 miles deep thickness of Cretaceous marine-deposited sediments intruded by Cretaceous granitic plutons. In short at the time of interest this site had none of the present volcanoes nor mountains, but was sea, with a few islands in places.

Mount Shasta, California USA, 41.25N 122.12W, peaks above 14,000 feet and is situated in the Southern Cascades. I don't have so much information about its structure, but it is also classed as a Quaternary volcano, less than 1.6 M.y. old.

Hubbard was completely mistaken to name these 3 particular volcanoes as existing 75 M.y. ago.

2.1.10: San Gorgonio

This mountain is also located in California at 34.05N 116.50W, and stands 11,485 feets high, forming part of the Transverse Ranges [7].

W.F. Barbat [8] informs us that the area in question mostly comprises precambrian rocks of all types, with some granitic rocks chiefly of Mesozoic age. It sits on the San Andreas Fault.

These look to me like basement rocks that have surfaced after a very great deal of uplift and erosion. The general area is of Mesozoic sediments that suffered crustal shortening.

The San Andreas Fault on which the mountain lies, is thought to be a consequence of the considerable gravitational load the uplifted sedimentary formations placed on the continental plate. Plate movement has been slow, or lateral thus no volcanism.

I conclude that at 75 M.y. the area was underwater and probably experiencing no volcanism. Thus Hubbard was mistaken for this mountain.

2.2: Volcano list - Atlantic

2.2.1: Tangier

There are several "Tangier" to be found around the Atlantic Ocean:

Tangier, Morocco, at the southern side of the Straits of Gibraltar is the most probable site, since Hubbard visited here with his ship. I see no evidence of volcanism or mountains at this site for the time of interest, it doesn't form part of the Atlas Mountains which are further South.

Tangier, Nova Scotia. This was a stable cratonic area for the time of interest.

Tangier Island at 73.84N, 76W in Chesapeake Bay, USA is also a stable cratonic area with no sign of volcanism later than about 100 M.y. ago, when the North Atlantic started to open.

I can thus find no "Tangier" that was a volcano or mountain 75 M.y. ago, and conclude that Hubbard was mistaken.

2.2.2: St. Helena

St Helena lies some 800 km east of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the South Atlantic, an area of about 120 square km, and reaches some 822 m above sea level.

Oldest above - surface age on St Helena is 14.6 +- 1.0 M.y., measured at the older eruptive pile which shows signs of eruption underwater and subsequent uplft. Baker the surveying geologist concluded that the island is less than 20 M.y. in age even though date of initiation of the volcanic pile is unknown.

I agree with this conclusion, and Hubbard was mistaken to name this island as existing 75 M.y. ago. Interestingly St. Helena is where Napoleon was exiled, and so this choice hints at imagination at work.

2.2.3: Kolomonjero (Kilimanjaro)

Kolomonjero is Hubbard's spelling, and I read this to mean Kilimanjaro, highest mountain in Africa, a recently active cinder-cone volcano standing at over 19,000 feet high, in Tanzania near the Equator.

Baker (1971) [10] give an earliest age of about 1 M.y. for exposed basalts on the Kenya side of the border, confirming suggestions from other studies that the main phase of activity at Kilimanjaro occurred during the Pleistocene (less than 1.64 M.y. ago).

Gaciri (1991) [11] cites Mt Kenya, Mt. Kilimanjaro and Mt. Kulal as Miocene-Holocene volcanics, i.e. 23.5 M.y. at oldest, placing them within the Kenya Rift tectonic setting.

Hubbard was thus mistaken in naming this volcano. The sloppy spelling hints at contempt for the reader.

2.2.4: Las Palmas (Canary Islands) (Implant Centre)

Las Palmas is the capital of Gran Canaria in the Canary Islands, off the coast of North Africa. As one of the two "implant" centres it is a key site for Hubbard's OT3 claim.

Strange that Hubbard named a town and not an island for this site, he did mean Las Palmas town and not La Palma island.

The older Canary Islands comprise Fuerteventura and Lanzarote, containing basement continental rocks unconformably overlain by thick deposits of Late Cretaceous sediments. In other words they were underwater at the time of interest. These older islands are mostly overlain by massive Late Tertiary volcanic deposits. [14]

The younger Canary Islands comprise Gran Canaria, Tenerife, Gomera, La Palma and Hierro, and are volcanic piles on oceanic crust, and straddle the Canary Fracture Zone. There is a westward decrease in the ages of these islands. Gran Canaria, (on which lies Las Palmas) is the oldest of these islands, and is mostly basalts that erupted to form shield volcanoes during Mid Miocene, about 15 M.y. ago. [13], [14].

I conclude that there was no Las Palmas site 75 m.y. ago, nor any substitute for the time of interest.

2.2.5: Canada

There was volcanism at the Pacific Coast, as now, none on the Atlantic coast.

I think that mention of Canada/Atlantic is hinting at the great lakes as probable explosion craters, thus am checking these:

Scientists have much investigated these nice round lakes for traces of eroded asteroid/meteor impacts (called astroblems).

Hudson Bay and Nastapoka.. No evidence for Hudson Bay. Nastapoka is so deeply under sediment that no explosion traces have been found [34] Nastapoka is thus provisionally dated older than 2000 M.y.

I conclude that whilst the map much fuels the imagination on explosion craters, whats actually found on-site puts possible dates far older than the time of interest. I therefore conclude that Hubbard was mistaken in naming Canada.

2.3: Other Information given

2.3.1: The search for explosion traces

It happens that earth scientists are interested in and searching for locations and sizes of asteroid impacts in the geological record. Interest is fuelled partly by a conjecture that asteroid impacts can cause continent-splitting and affect the pattern of mantle convection, partly by the effort to establish causes of mass extinctions at various times.

Impact traces and craters are located in several ways: visible signs of cratering: satellite and other remote sensing [15]: shocked quartz grains and impact ejecta [16]: gravimetric surveys [17]: electric resistivity [18].

There has been little cratering evidence found for around 75 M.y. ago, the closest being the Iowa crater (35 Km across), recently redated at 73.8 M.y. [20], 2 others listed for 78-74 M.y. are Eagle Butte (10 km) and Dumas (2 km).

It is estimated that there should have been approximately 350 impacts over the past 100 M.y. with sufficient kinetic energy to produce craters greater than 10 km in diameter, however only a few dozen are currently known [21]. This gives some indication of the difficulty in locating explosion traces. The picture may soon change if extensive gravimetric mapping gets under way, since craters buried by up to a kilometre of sediments can be detected by this means.

Considering Hubbard's claim of widespread H-bombing at many more volcanoes than the ones he lists, the search for but lack of explosion evidence for the time of interest indicates either that they didn't happen at all, or were concealed - perhaps through being exploded by near-to-erupting volcanoes. Since most of the sites he names for H-bombing didn't exist at the time, any claim that volcanism masked the effects is in any case, untenable.

2.3.2: Human and other life 75M.y. ago

In his OT3 statement Hubbard clearly stated Earth as one of the 76 or so planets ruled by Xenu that were suffering human overpopulation, with the Earth's population given at 250 billions. Earth's population in the 1990s is about 5+ billions, giving a present-time human population density only 1/45th that claimed by Hubbard for 75 M.y. ago!

Let us now make a thought experiment: Here was a massive human population on earth, and scientists of today very eager to find the earliest possible traces of past human existence. Why then do we hear no reports of finding rubbish dumps, roads, houses, or other human remains or traces of any sort whatsoever? Why on the contrary do we find evidence of dinosaurs, whose remains and prints are regularly found in rock strata dated to the end of the Cretaceous, and whose existence was incompatible with such a massive human population? Why do we not see mass extinctions of species happening at 75 M.y. ago due to human foraging, pollution and warfare, when evidence is that species persisted or gradually declined through that time and only suffered mass extinctions at 65 M.y. ago? (and also in the 20th Century, alas).

The oldest trace of human existence or remains found so far are Homo Habilis, Malawi, dated at 2.5 M.y. [22]. It is thought by geneticists that homo, chimpanzees and gorillas may have evolved from a single ancestor about 9 M.y. ago [23].

Although mass extinctions did happen at 65 M.y. ago, the iridium layer together with soot present in the rock 'K-T' layer corresponding to the time are not pointers to H-bombings. Iridium is a common element found in asteroids, also present in the Earth's mantle. It is not a by-product of atomic fission or fusion.

3: Summary and interpretation of findings

3.1: Summary of findings

Table of my findings for Hubbard's list of volcanoes for 75 M.y. Key:
"()" Implant Centre,
"i" hints at imagination,
"c" hints at contempt for reader
"<" less than, ">" greater than.
Asia and Pacific
North Japan
false (part of mainland until < 30 M.y.)
South Japan
false (part of mainland until < 30 M.y.)
false (ic < 1 M.y.)
Mount Washington
true (i but volcanism stopped > 270)
Mount Ranier
false (c Mount Rainier < 1.6 M.y.)
Mount Hood
false (< 1.6 M.y.)
Mt. Shasta
false (< 1.6 M.y.)
San Gorgonio
false (part of sea bed at the time)
false (non-existent or unrecognisable)
false (none-existent or wrong location)
false (< 40-55 M.y.)
false (c < 1.63 M.y., no substitute possible)
true (geography was marine, with islands)
false (no volcanism for any locations)
St. Helena
false (i < 14.6 M.y.)
false (c Kilimanjaro < 23.5 M.y.)
(Las Palmas)
false (< 15 M.y., no substitute possible)
false (i Pacific volcanism, craters too old)
I have tried to be unbiased, informative and accurate, but don't care if the above table should prove incorrect in places since 16 of the 18 places found to be false, represents overwhelming evidence that Hubbard was mistaken.

There is no evidence to support Hubbard's assertion of widespread H-bombing, notwithstanding an ongoing scientific search for, and dating of, explosion traces.

Evidence from Palaeontology and Genetics flatly contradict Hubbard's claims of a massive human population 75 M.y. ago.

My conclusion is that the Incident II of OT3 was impossible, when viewed against the abundant scientific evidence available.

I further conclude that Hubbard's choice of four sites was appropriate for imagination, and spelling and presentation were very sloppy for published research and hint at contempt for the reader.

Incident 1, preposterous as an event in its content, is dated ten thousand times older than science dates the universe, (going by "Big Bang" theory). The scientific "criterion of falsifiability" by which scientists insist that statements be testable such as to conceivably be shown false before being considered as scientific, fails twice over with Incident I. In the first place there is a let-out where the date is far older than the universe, which prohibits testing. Also by selling OT3 as "boobytrapped such as to look unbelievable", a second let-out from testing is asserted in the double-bind form "heads I win, tails you lose".

3.2: Analysis of Dianetics based on my findings

OT3 gets people "recalling" demonstrably fictitious incidents, thus I went on to check Dianetics literature to see how Hubbard treated imaginary recalls..

The 1950 Dianetics handbook was Hubbard's first publication in this area. I discovered that he positively encourages "dub-in" (unknowingly imaginary recalls), and in maintaining credibility by describing its liabilities he deflected odium onto the equivalent terms "lie Factory" and "garbage", leaving "dub-in" untainted. "Dub-in" is supposedly discernable when the recalled bodily perceptions don't vary as the recalled event progresses, or are inappropriate, and where on subsequent re-experiencings the content is widely changed. In such cases the auditor is advised to run painful emotion incidents. Generally this early handbook allows running of plausible "dub-in" same as any other recall or buried recall, and portrays "dub-in" as coming from demons.

The 1952 Science of Survival handbook asserts that reality on "dub-in" recalls is very low, but the individual will run them and manifest fear. It also asserts that the individual will experience considerable relief after running "dub-in". "Dub-in" is treated no differently than other traumas.

The 1975 Dianetics Today handbook asserts that "dub-in" is run just as any other incident and is of no concern to the auditor.

A 1975 bulletin [31] prescribes as a remedy for inability to run past lives, running of expressly imaginary past life incidents, with steering then involved towards accepting these as real and valid. This document encourages children to run movie films as if they were actual personal recalls, thereby degrading ability to distinguish fantasy from reality.

Meter technology.. several 1970's references assert that the meter only reads on whats real to the subject, thus the meter cannot distinguish "dub-in" from actual recalls [30].

Advertising.. taking into account the mandatory depiction of volcanoes on the dustcover of the 1950 Dianetics handbook, along with OT3 data released as early as 1952, and books released such as "A History of Man" I can only conclude that Dianetics has from the outset been developed to pave the way for OT3.

In summary Dianetics from the start encouraged "dub-in", then progressively enforced it, and demons, prenatal recalls and past life recalls were widely discussed in his materials and criticism stifled, thus steering thinking that way. I therefore conclude it to be a cognitive behavioural training action, getting people unknowingly creating false memories.

3.3: Analysis of Scientology based on my findings

OT3 has been advertised using: These, by my geological scrutiny, are false claims and thus are inducements to superstition. Scientology is defined as "Knowing how to know answers".

The Scientology effects of OT3 are, by inspection, threefold:

  1. Deflection and confounding of external influences.
  2. Strengthening of mental willpower to smoothly control others.
  3. The curtailment of independent thought and suborning of the mind to Hubbard's total control.
On (1/)by considering an influencing idea or thought as an object, (a "body thetan"/ "entity"/ "flea"/ "demon"), and have the object recall what volcano it was blown up at, then Incident 1 cherub-dance it, the Scientologist degrades and thus deflects the influencing idea or thought. Its a process analogous to whistling a catchy jingle out of tune in order to zap its appeal and thereby banish it from mind.

On (2) strengthening of will-control of others is acheived through oft-repeated practice in smoothly will-controlling imaginary entities.

On (3) more sinister is the ready explanation in terms of implant conditioning at Hawaii or Las Palmas for any of:

All of these reactions are ascribed to demon reactions that the Scientologist has "mistaken" as his own thoughts. The Scientologist's own reaction is *not allowed* as part of the OT3 activity! In this manner the Scientologist's independent thinking and reactions to the story get regularly confused and re-directed into the nonsense of OT3.

I thus conclude that the Scientology actions of OT3 represent disguised cognitive procedural training that results in fanaticism, and debilitation of mental independence and cognitive functioning of the individual.

3.4: Coercion, progression and criminal racketeering

There is coercion involved:

OT3 completion comes when the individual feels comfortable with it and has run as many demons as desired [28]. A number of people have committed suicide as result of OT3.

It gets run in earnest later on, on audited NOTS, along with multitudes of exorcisms and other debilitating processes. At that stage its not uncommon for people to become so distressed they bark like dogs, foul themselves and/or feel no pain on bodily injury.[32] At that stage they subjectively experience the body and world getting progressively more transparent, and are taught to interpret this as going exterior, the desirable result for OT4 [30].

OT3, via Dianetics and Scientology is not valid for any of religion, college, business or science, but comes under the aegis of criminal racketeering.

Let me qualify that last sentence: OT3 and above debilitation cannot be successfully foisted on people without using all of deception, forceful curtailment of free speech in defence of secrecy, infliction of superstitious fear, psychological and temporal coercion, and the charging of large sums of money. This conduct sums to criminal racketeering. I am not here talking about organisations or individuals but the technology itself. Dianetics, Scientology and its resultant OT3 cannot survive in a free speech environment with the newcomer in contact with critics and looking ahead to the thick end of the wedge.. Nobody, but nobody would accept it!

4: Reference data

4.1: Hubbard's own admissions re OT3

In a Hubbard 1952 lecture [33] are some fascinating admissions: hes "trying to tell you a fairy tale": his typewriter "put years and millions of words worth lots on top of this..": "all sorts of strange things happen when you get near this incident because its full of lies": he runs dub-in: he "invented Dianetics" with an intention as he went into it that "was something quite beyond": the people doing this nascent OT3 "are going to be undone". These admissions confirm what I've discovered from careful checking and analysis.

Hubbard's admissions on this tape went further than my own analysis: his fairy tale concerned a black enchantment he'd laid across the land, where the way to stop people from spotting the enchantment was to "divide them within themselves".

4.2: Credits

[1] S Uyeda, A Miashiro, (1974), Geol Soc Amer Bull, v85,p1159 - 1170, "Plate tectonics and the Japanese Islands: A Synthesis."

[2] S Maruyama, T Seno, (1986), Tectonophysics 127, p305-329, "Orogeny and relative plate motions: example of the Japanese islands."

[3] WB Hamilton (1988), Geol Soc Amer Bull, v100, p1503-1527, "Plate tectonics and island arcs."

[4] BD Johnson, C McA Powell, JJ Veevers, (1976), Geol Soc Amer Bull, v87, p1560-1566 "Spreading history of the eastern Indian Ocean and Greater India's northward flight from Antarctica and Australia."
D Schelling, (1992), Tectonics, v11, n5, p925-943, "The tectonostratigraphy and structure of the eastern Nepal Himalaya."

[5] DA Clague, RD Jarrard, (1973a), Geol Soc Amer Bull, v84, p1135-1154, "Tertiary Pacific plate motion deduced from the Hawaiian Emperor Chain".

[6] DSDP 192 Deep Sea Drilling Project report for hole 192 and 192a.

[7] Physiography of the United States (1967)

[8] WF Barbat, (1971), Geol Soc Amer Bull, v82, p1541-1562, "Megatectonics of the Coast Ranges, California."

[9] I Baker, (1967), Nature, v215, p1451-1456, "Geocronology of the St. Helena volcanoes." (1969), Geol Soc Amer Bull, p1454 "Petrology of the volcanic rocks of St. Helena Island."

[10] BH Baker, LAJ Williams, JA Miller, FJ Fitch, (1971), Tectonophysics, v11, p191-215, "Sequence and chronology of the Kenya Rift Volcanics."

[11] SJ Gaciri, (1991), Tectonophysics v209, p139-142, "Lineament map of Kenya: correlations of lineaments to known geological data."

[13] X Le Pichon, PJ Fox, (1971),J Geophy. Res. v76, p6294-6308, "Marginal offsets, fracture zones and the early opening of the North Atlantic."

[14] Rothe, Schminke (1968), Nature, v218, n5147, p1152-1154, "Contrasting origins of the eastern and western islands of the Canarian Archipelago."

[15] JB Garvin, CS Schnetzler, RAF Grieve, (1992), Tectonophysics, v216, p45-52, "Characteristics of large terrestrial impact structures as revealed by remote sensing studies."

[16] Geol Mag v131 (3), (1994), p361-367.

[17] J Kakkuri, (1991), Tectonophysics v216, p41-44. "Traces of impact craters in the geoid"

[18] H Henkel (1992), Tectonophysics v216, p63-89. "Geophysica aspects of meteorite impact craters in eroded shield environment, with special emphasis on electric resistivity."

[20] New Scientist 13 Nov 1993, p17 "Ancient asteroid not guilty of murdering dinosaurs."

[21] RAF Grieve, (1987), Annu. Rev. Earth Planet Sci, 15, p245- 270. RAF Grieve, (1984), J Geophy. Res. v89, B403-408, "The impact cratering rate in recent time."

[22] Nature 1993, p833: New Scientist 30 Oct 1993, p15., "Human jaw hints at Africa Trek"

[23] Journal of Human Evolution, v25, p201 : New Scientist 30 Oct 1993, "Three way split for our ape ancestors."

[24] New Scientist, 30 Oct 1993, p14, "Thumbs up for an older universe."

[25] Hans Burgl, (1967), Tectonophysics, v4, p429-443, "The Orogenesis in the Andean system of Colombia."

[26] HCOB 15 November 1978 "Dating and Locating".

[27] Several South China Sea papers are referenced on Geobase CD ROM, searching under "Tecton*" AND "South China Sea". My favoured reference for its presentation of different interpretations, is "Cenozoic plate reconstruction of the South China Sea region" by Tung-Yi-Lee, Tectonophysics 1994. 235(1-2), pp149-180

[28] 10.11.81 OT III and OT III ATTEST. Also NED for OTs Series 10 16.09.78 Issue IV OT III and dormant BT's, section on OT III ATTEST.

[29] NED for OTs Series 2, 15-09-1978 Issue II, "Why you can't run engrams after clear"

[30] BTB 11.12.72RA Rev. 13.5.75, in Tech Vols p274 "The Tech and ethics of Integrity Processing". HCOPL/HCOB 7.8.79, in Tech Vols p367, "False Data Stripping". HCOPL 15.11.1970, in Tech Vols p633 "Confessionals".

[31] HCOB 16.1.75R rev.6.7.1978 "Past Life Remedies"

[32] Tabayoyon Statement. Marjery Wakefield "The Road to Xenu" (FACTNET), various WWW pages (for instance, Cornelius Krasel, Dave Touretzky, USENET (alt.religion.scientology)

[33] 5203C04B, 1952 Phoenix lecture 2101], Hubbard gives a description of discovery of Incident I, and hints at Incident II. Part of this tape was re-recorded in 1973 on-board the Apollo.

[34] Recognition of eroded astroblems, Jehan Rondot, 1992, Earth-Science Reviews 35 (1994) 331-365].

[35] prelude within OT3 materials, HCOB 2.10.1968R revised 16.08.1983, HCOPL 11.8.1971 Issue V replaces HCOPL 10.11.66 Advanced Courses Materials Security of Data {in Tech Vols P635}].

My thanks to those brave souls who published the OT level materials in books and on the Internet. They ran the gauntlet of extensive litigation and harassment by Scientology, for the benefit of others not themselves.

4.3: Geological Time Chart

Time      Period           Era         Epoch (some of them)

0                        -|            Holocene (10,000 yrs)
          Quaternary      |            Pleistocene (1.64 M.y. - 0)
2                         |Cainozoic   Miocene (23.5 - 5.14 M.y.)
          Tertiary        |
65                       -|-|
          Cretaceous (Late) |          Maestrichtian (97 - 70 M.y.)
97                          |     (Incident II at 75-74 M.y.)
          Cretaceous (Early)|
146                         |
          Jurassic          |Mesozoic
190                         |
          Triassic          |
225                      -|-|
          Permian         |
280                       |
          Carboniferous   |
345                       |
          Devonian        |
395                       |Palaeozoic
          Silurian        |
430                       |
          Ordovician      |
500                       |
          Cambrian        |
570                      -|-|
          Precambrian       |Precambrian   Phanerozoic Eon
4,500                       |              (700-0 M.y.)
                            |              Proterozoic Eon
                            |              (2500-700 M.y.)
                            |              Archaeon
                            |              (4500-2500 M.y.)
4,500  M.y.                -|              Formation of the Earth  
extend another 30,000 times to get to Incident One !

Recommended reading:

Jon Atack, (1990), "A Piece of Blue Sky, Scientology, Dianetics and L. Ron Hubbard Exposed", a Lyle Stuart book published by Carol Publishing Group, ISBN 0-8184-0499-X Hardback. A masterfully researched expose of the abuses, contradictions, falsehoods, paranoia and greed of Hubbard and some of his pseudo military Scientologist henchmen.
Available from Jon Atack at Theta Communications Ltd. "Avalon", Cranston Road, East Grinstead Sussex, RH19 3HQ. Price 15 British pounds including postage.

Jon Atack (1992) The Total Freedom Trap, available from J Atack (Theta Communications Ltd.) or Peter Forde, 2 British pounds including postage; or via the WWW at Tilman Hausherr.

Steven Hassan "Combatting Cult Mind Control", Aquarian ISBN 0-89281-243-5

"Cults: What Parents Should Know" Longone & Ross, Lyle Stuart, ISBN 0-8184-0511-2.

Thomas and Jaqueline Keiser "The Anatomy of Illusion" ISBN 0-398-05295-6

"Captive Hearts, Captive Minds" Lalich & Tobias, Hunter House, ISBN 0-89793-144-0.

Margery Wakefield "The Road to Zenu" is an excellent first-hand account of membership, and includes Bob Penney's thought provoking "Social Control In Scientology". "The Road To Zenu" is available via P.O. Box 290402, Tampa, Florida US 33687, or via the WWW at Mike Gormez, Dave Touretzky.


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