CITY OF EDMONTON
PROVINCE OF ALBERTA
BEFORE ME, the undersigned authority, Stephen A. Kent personally
appeared, and whom I know on a professional basis, and after first being
duly affirmed by me states:
II. OVERVIEW OF SCIENTOLOGY
10. Hubbard began what he named, "Scientology," in the Spring of 1952, and he introduced it as an extension and expansion of the reputed science of Dianetics and not as a religion. Only in December 1953 did Hubbard initiate his assertion that Scientology was a religion. In Scientology he developed teachings about past lives (including ones in different galaxies) more than he had in his initial Dianetics system. The entity that Scientologists believe continues through countless lives is called a thetan, which is roughly analogous to a soul or spirit that has forgotten its true nature. By 1967, Hubbard claimed he had learned that individual thetans had become burdened with clusters of lost and confused entities ("body thetans") attached to people's bodies. These attachments were the result of billions of victims having died when an evil galactic warlord named Xenu captured and sent them to earth's volcanic areas, then exploded the volcanos by dropping hydrogen bombs. Scientology's upper level courses, called the "Operating Thetan" or "OT" levels, claim to free one's body and its thetan from the numerous body clusters of confused and frightened thetans.
Scientology is that branch of psychology which treats of [sic] human
ability. It is an extension of DIANETICS which is itself an extension
of old-time faculty-psychology of 400 years ago.... Scientology is actually
a new very basic psychology in the most exact meaning of the word. It
can and does change behaviour and intelligence and it can and does assist
people to study life (Hubbard, 1956: ).
Tens of thousands of case histories, and individual records, all sworn to, are in the possession of the organizations of Scientology. No other subject on earth except physics and chemistry has had such gruelling testing....
Scientology falls within the definition of sciences, and is more rigorously organized than any other group of data which bear the designation of science. It is derived from closely defined axioms which are then uniformly discoverable and applicable in the physical universe (Hubbard, 1956: ).
Hubbard's "scientific" claims for Scientology could not be
Scientology conflicts nowhere with the truth, and will be found to agree with known facts in whatever field it overlaps. It does not conflict with any religious truths. On the contrary, it has something to offer everyone, Christian, Jew, Buddhist, Mohammedan [sic], Agnostic, and Atheist. It does not try to change the beliefs, doctrine or creed of the individual's church, on the contrary it brings the individual to a point of better understanding of them, whatever they may be (Hubbard, 1956: [2-3]).
Hubbard is very clear that both Dianetics and Scientology are psychological sciences, and that Scientology does not conflict with any religious or non-religious belief system. In this document, therefore, Scientology is not a religion, according to Hubbard himself.
It is hereafter firm Church policy that LRH [L. Ron Hubbard] ISSUES ARE TO BE LEFT INTACT AS ISSUED.
No one except LRH may cancel his issues.
No one except LRH can revise his issues whereby changes are incorporated into the text and re-issued. Any valid revisions must hereafter be made in a separate issue stating the change and how the revision is to be read. It must also state why the change is being effected, for example, if there has been an ecclesiastical change or a technical development.
Changes in Church policy become valid Church policy by being adopted by the Board [of Directors]....
However, the original LRH issue (regardless of type) shall remain intact so that the original wording is kept. In this way, his writings retain their integrity and there is no mystery as to what he wrote and what the revision stated and why.
The only occasion for any revision of an LRH issue is if a typographical error is found in the original.
Already existing issues stand intact and valid. Any further changes will be dealt with on an issue-by-issue basis.
This policy will allow the integrity of Source to be reinstated (Watchdog
Committee for the Church of Scientology International, 1982 [capitalization
and underlining in original]).
When, therefore, I quote Hubbard himself in this report, I am quoting
sources that MUST remain unaltered within the Scientology organization
unless Hubbard himself subsequently had changed them.
II. IS THE CHURCH OF SCIENTOLOGY FLAG SERVICE ORGANIZATION SOLELY
AND EXCLUSIVELY A RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATION?
The Commissioners[,] having considered the activities of auditing and training, which Scientology regards as its worship, concluded that auditing is more akin to therapy or counselling and training more akin to study and that both auditing and training are not in their essence exhibitions of reverence paid to a supreme being and such Scientology practices are not worship for the purposes of charity law. The Commissioners decided that auditing and training do not constitute worship as defined and interpreted from the legal authorities (Charity Commission, 1999b: 2).
In the complete version of the decision, the Commissioners concluded:
that auditing appears in essence very much akin to counselling, conducted on a one to one basis, in private, and addressed to the needs of the individual receiving auditing. Scientologists themselves describe auditing as counselling (for example in the video presentation to the Charity Commissioners for England and Wales). On the whole they do not appear to describe auditing in terms of worship (Charity Commission 1999a: 25).
Auditing, therefore, did not appear as a religious activity.
further concluded that training in Scientology, involving the detailed study of the works of L. Ron Hubbard, according to particular set formulae or methods of study, similarly lacks the elements of reverence or veneration necessary if it is to constitute worship. Scientology training appears more like an educational activity (the acquisition of knowledge and practical skills in the application of Scientology theory and technology) than a religious activity or worship in the sense defined by the Commissioners (Charity Commission, 1999a: 25).
Like auditing, Scientology training appeared to be non-religious.
23. Scientology's official policies allow a person to refuse an RPF
assignment by resigning from Sea Org and/or by signing a statement documenting
his or her alleged "crimes" and absolving the group from future
legal action (see Anonymous, n.d.). Unofficially, however, numerous accounts
exist of Sea Org members who simply were taken into RPF facilities against
their will. Moreover, inmates in the RPF program who deviate from its
strict rules may have their RPF overseers assign them to the harsher and
more punitive, "RPF's RPF," and these assignments are unlikely
ever to be 'voluntary' in any manner.
24. The RPF involves: forcible confinement; hard physical labor and
other forms of physical maltreatment: long hours of study; various forms
of social maltreatment; forced confessions; and (as a final condition
of release from the program) obligatory "success stories" (see,
for example, Boards of Directors of the Churches of Scientology, 1980).
Inmates remain in the RPF for indefinite periods of time, and accounts
from former Scientologists who were in this penal system report that some
people remain in it for well over a year.
25. While Scientology operates RPF programs in various locations around
the world (East Grinstead, England; Copenhagen; Los Angeles; Hemet and
Happy Valley, California), one of these programs takes place in and around
Flag Service Organization's Fort Harrison Hotel in Clearwater. Publicly
available accounts of people who have been in the Clearwater RPF program
include: Gerry Armstrong; Tonya Burden; Dennis Erlich; Nefertiti [Pseudonym];
Anne Rosenblum; Margery Wakefield; and Hana Whitfield. Former Scientologist,
Lori Taverna, spoke about the RPF in the City of Clearwater Commission
Hearings on Scientology in 1982. Erlich reported being locked in a cage
in the basement of Flag Service Organization's Fort Harrison Hotel, and
Whitfield declared under oath that she saw a woman (Lyn Froyland, who
was on the RPF's RPF) chained to a pipe in that same basement. The RPF
is not a religious institution and apparently was not discussed in Scientology's
charitable tax exemption decision with the Internal Revenue Service.
Its existence and operation in the Flag Service Organization mitigates
against Flag's claim to be a religious institution.
26. In 1984, the Clearwater Sun ran an article about the RPF. The article begins as follows:
"The young man-by all appearances a teenager-crouched on the dark, narrow stairway as he scrubbed the sixth-floor landing in the former Fort Harrison Hotel, the 'flag Land Base' headquarters of the Church of Scientology.
'Are you in RPF?' queried a reporter.
'Sir?' he asked quietly, peering up from his work.
'Are you in RPF?'
'Yes sir I am.'
RPF is the Rehabilitation Project Force (RPF), which, depending on who is speaking, is either a businessman's approach to improving an employee's lagging job performance or a form of punishment for Scientologists who are banished to serve penance for their misdeeds and 'bad thoughts.'
Two others-adult men who, like the youth, were dressed in blue shorts and faded blue shirts-worked two floors below, also cleaning the stairs. They spoke not a word. Former Scientologists say that those in RPF 'are not to speak unless spoken to.'
Those who have spent time in the RPF at the Fort Harrison tell a harrowing tale of long hours at work-as much as 100 hours a week-and of months of humiliation and mental abuse at the hands of other Scientologists.
But their vivid recollections of hard work and abuse contradict current
Church of Scientology statements that the RPF is 'an entirely voluntary'
program (Shelor, 1984: 1B).
28. C. Vacation Resort--In addition to Flag Service Organization's role in delivering Scientology courses and housing Scientology's RPF penal system, it also serves as a vacation resort. One Flag publication, for example, states:
It's the perfect time to take a vacation at Flag! Located on Florida's
Suncoast-a favorite vacation paradise-Flag is convenient to a wide range
of vacation attractions. The Flag Social Director can help arrange the
activities of your choice. Clearwater's sparkling beaches are only minutes
away. Family attractions such as Walt Disney World and EPCOT Center, Busch
Gardens, Sea World, Cypress Gardens and more can be reached by daily bus
excursions. Summer sports enthusiasts can still enjoy waterskiing, sailing,
wind surfing, jogging, bicycling, or tennis. Or just relax by the Fort
Harrison pool and enjoy the many Flag activities! (Flag Crew Church of
Scientology Flag Service Org, Inc., 1989: ).
Summer's the perfect time to vacation at Flag! Located on Florida's
Suncoast-a favorite vacation paradise-Flag is convenient to a wide range
of vacation attractions. The Flag Social Director can help arrange the
activities of your choice. Your children can learn to sail or
windsurf at the Flag Sea Org Cadet Sailing School! Clearwater's
sparkling white beaches are only minutes away. Attractions and Theme parks
such as Walt Disney World, Busch Gardens, Sea World, Universal Studios,
Cypress Gardens and many others are a short drive away either by car or
by special bus excursions. Summer sports enthusiasts can enjoy waterskiing,
sailing, wind surfing, jogging, bicycling, tennis and many other activities.
Come to Flag now and take advantage of the summer accommodations
specials for Visitors and Vacationers! Bring your family and
friends! (Church of Scientology Flag Service Organization, Inc., 1992:
[11; boldface in original]).
33. Viewing all of this material together, one can say that Flag Service
Organization operates facilities that provide auditing and training that
may be closer to counseling and study than they are to religious activities.
Added to this ambiguity is the use of Flag Service Organization facilities
as a penal system against some members and a vacation resort for others.
The combined weight of the evidence, therefore, leads me to conclude that
the Flag Service Organization is not a religious institution.
III. IS SCIENTOLOGY'S INTROSPECTION RUNDOWN A RELIGIOUS PRACTICE?
34. In reaching a conclusion about whether the Introspection Rundown
is a religious practice, it is important to keep the rundown's threefold
intent in mind. First, it intends to correct the conditions that psychotics
suffer, including their (frequent) violence and destructiveness (see Hubbard,
1991: 1). Second, it intends to attack reputed critics of the Scientology
ideology and/or organization. Third, it intends to eliminate psychiatry
by introducing a treatment procedure for psychosis that makes the profession
unnecessary. According to Hubbard's teachings for Scientologists, the
introduction of the Introspection Rundown
"MEANS THE LAST REASON TO HAVE PSYCHIATRY AROUND IS GONE" (Hubbard,
1991: 1 [emphasis in original]). Hubbard's desire and attempts to replace
psychiatry with his own form of 'counseling' appears in Dianetics material
that pre-dates his creation of Scientology. An examination of that early
material in combination with subsequent Scientology information leads
to the inescapable conclusion that the Introspection Rundown is, fundamentally,
a pseudo-psychiatric (hence pseudo-medical) practice, and is not a religious
practice. Flag Service Organization provided a facility-the Fort Harrison
Hotel-that allowed Scientology to engage in this pseudo-medical, pseudo-psychiatric
35. Two basic claims that remain at the heart of both Dianetics and
Scientology auditing appear in a very early Dianetics publication. In
the May 1950 edition of Astounding Science Fiction , Hubbard
included in his summary of Dianetics the following claims:
1. Dianetics is an organized science of thought built upon definite axioms; it apparently reveals the existence of natural laws by which behavior can uniformly be caused or predicted in the unit organism or society.
2. Dianetics offers a therapeutic technique with which we can treat any and all inorganic mental and organic psychosomatic ills, with assurance of complete cure in unselected cases. It produces a mental stability in the 'cleared' patient which is far superior to the current norm.
13. Dianetics set forth the non-germ theory of disease, embracing, it
has been estimated by competent physicians, the cure of some seventy percent
of man's pathology (Hubbard, 1950a: 85, 86).
The dianetic auditor who practices with the institutionally
insane exclusively should provide himself [sic] with the text now in preparation
on that subject: the techniques are similar to those now described here
[in the book] but incline more toward heroic measures: this present volume
is addressed to treatment of the normal person or the neurotic patient
not sufficiently violent to be institutionalized. However, with intelligence
and imagination these same techniques can be applied with success to any
mental state or physical illness. Institutional Dianetics is primarily
the reduction of an insanity to a neurosis (Hubbard, 1950b: 206n.).
Any school of mental healing in the past has been victimized by that irrationality known as psychosis. Dianetics, no matter if it has the answer to psychosis, is yet victimized by its existence in the society.
Psychotics, people with histories of known breaks, of suicide attempts, of homicidal tendencies, can yet be expected to apply for instruction in dianetics.
A psychotic discovered by screening should either be routed into processing
(if the case is mild and non-suicidal) or rejected. At such time as the
[Hubbard Dianetics] Foundation possess adequate and lawful housing facilities
for the retention of psychotics, those who might have been turned away
may be routed to the unit which has such facilities in its charge. Efforts
are being made, and others should be made, to procure such sanitarium
facilities wherein psychotics may be dianetically processed (Hubbard,
Helen and David Cary, directly or indirectly, were still two more victims of psychiatric inadequacy and ineptitude. We are trying not to feel intensely about it just because the fact strikes so 'close to home.' But even with a clinical attitude, we can't help thinking of the millions of other homes who have similar good reason to fear for the failures of 'recognized' psychotherapy.
...Yes, David Cary was attracted to dianetics when and because
psychiatry had failed . He learned it well because he wanted
to help the woman he loved, but his efforts to process her met with only
the greatest resistance (Leonard, 1951: 2).
With reference to psychosis, or severe neurosis, the technique can be considered to be, and is considered to be, indispensible [sic] for both the auditor and the psychoanalyst. In this state it is especially difficult to pick from the babblings of a patient the clue for the material which, if brought to light, may relieve his stress.
Despite its importance, associative processing requires very little technical background or information. It can be utilized by one who has had no more than the most elementary instruction on the psychometer [i.e., the E-meter]-such as how it is turned on, how the electrodes are connected, and how to keep the needle balanced in the middle of the meter.
The patient is given the electrodes to hold. If he is particularly disturbed,
they are strapped to his hands with adhesive tape, and a mitten is placed
over one side of the hands holding the electrodes so that banging them
together will not disturb the needle reading (Hubbard, 1952: 5).
Step VII PSYCHOTIC CASES. Whether in or out of body.
The psychotic looks to be in such desperate straits that the auditor often errs in thinking desperate measures are necessary. Use the lightest possible methods.
Give case [i.e., the psychotic] space and freedom where possible. Have psychotic IMITATE (not MOCK-UP [i.e., not creating an imaginary picture of] various things. Have him do PRESENT TIME DIFFERENTIATION.
Get him [sic] to tell the difference between things by actual touch. Have him locate, differentiate, and touch things that are really real to him (real objects or items).
If inaccessible, mimic him with own body, whatever he does until he comes into communication. Have him locate corners of the room and hold them without thinking. As soon as his communication is up go to STEP VI [mentioned earlier in the newsletter]; BUT BE VERY SURE he changes any mock-up until he knows it is a mock-up, that it exists and that he himself made it.
Do not run engrams. He is psychotic because viewpoints in present time are so scarce that he has gone into the past for viewpoints which at least he knew existed. By PRESENT TIME DIFFERENTIATION, by tactile on objects, return his idea of an abundance of viewpoint in present time (Hubbard, 1953: [6; capitals and underlining in original]).
The directives about having the psychotic individual locate himself
(or herself) in present time and in present location, along with using
mimicry techniques in an attempt to get the psychotic to orient him- or
herself, are recurrent (albeit simplistic) themes that reappear in subsequent
The goal of Scientologists is a sane world. This can be achieved, but
only by freeing people, freeing them from their own aberrations and from
the control of others. The techniques can be used to cure the seriously
ill and the insane, and there is no reason why this should not be done...(O'Connell,
The auditor, then who is looking at a psychotic, is trying to understand
an incomprehensible, and if we were to cease using the psychotic and begin
to use the word, 'incomprehensetic [sic]', we would have a word which
would serve us extremely well.
Thus, an auditor processes the psychotic with considerable difficulty
in the absence of this understanding of incomprehensibility.... The best
way to handle a psychotic is with physical form, making the psychotic
mimic the physical form be [sic: by?] mimicing [sic], with the physical
form, the psychotic. Thus we have our basic level of mimicry, and thus
we have the entering wedge of communication (Hubbard, 1955: 1-2).
The temporarily insane by reason of emotional shock, where no medical illness exists should be permitted rest and should then be handled by an [auditing] assist as above [i.e., discussed earlier in the Bulletin ] or normal Dianetic auditing. Most often, rest and no further harassment result in a return to sanity in a short time such as a few days, but not in the terror atmosphere such as a psychiatric asylum, where the patient is in the risk of being hurt or killed (Hubbard, 1969: 3).
His comments about a temporarily insane person being at risk of harm
or death in a psychiatric asylum seem ironic in light of what happened
to Lisa McPherson while in Scientology's care.
1. Pretending to do a post or duties, the real consistent result is destructive to the group in terms of breakage, lost items, injured business etc.
2. The case is no case gain or roller coaster and is covered under 'PTS [Potential Trouble Source] symptoms.' [A Potential Trouble Source is someone who cannot make gains in his or her auditing because the person is connected to a Scientology enemy or "Suppressive Person."]
3. They are usually chronically physically ill.
4. They have a deep but carefully masked hatred of anyone who seeks to help them.
5. The result of their 'help' is actually injurious.
6. They often seek transfers or wish to leave.
7. They are involved in warfare with conflicts around them which are
invisible to others. One wonders how they can be so involved or get so
involved in so much hostility (Hubbard, 1970c: 1-2).
Scientology is the first to make a technical breakthrough in the subject
of psychosis (meaning a definite obsessive desire to destroy). In 1970
the actual cause of psychosis was isolated, and in ensuing years this
has proven beyond doubt to be totally correct. Man has never been able
to solve the psychotic break. In fact, human beings are actually afraid
of a person in a psychotic break and in desperation turn to psychiatry
to handle [it]. Psychiatry, desperate in its turn, without effective technology,
resorts to barbarities such as heavy drugs, ice picks, electric shock
and insulin shock which half kill the person and only suppress him. The
fact remains that there has never been a cure for the psychotic break
until now (Church of Scientology of California, 1978: 5).
IV. SCIENTOLOGY'S HISTORY OF ISOLATING AND ATTEMPTING TO TREAT MENTALLY
He was actually locked up in a cabin in one of the-in the front of the
ship and it was for a number of weeks. Even it could have been a couple
of months where, you know, he was really-he should have been like in a
straightjacket in a paddled cell because if you would have seen the cabin
after he got through with it, I mean he had torn up, you know, ripped
the wood off the walls, you know, he slept and ate and lived in his own,
you know, excrete-excrement. It was just, you know, he tried to knock
holes in the door and for the first several weeks they tried to treat
him just by, you know, hopefully he would get some rest" (Schomer,
116. When I was in Scientology I was assigned to keep watch over a young
girl in her early twenties who became Type 3 PTS after being forced to
sever all communication with her family, because they were upset about
her involvement in Scientology. This incident occurred in Hemet, California,
at the high-security international headquarters of Scientology (Young,
The middle-aged German student started screaming. He seemed to have lost control. He was a Scientologist, a member of the world's largest cult, on a course of study that, he had been promised, would bring him closer to the secrets of the universe and, eventually, give him the key to eternal life.
According to eyewitnesses, the man, whose name is known to The Independent, was taken to an isolated room in a communal building not far from Saint Hill, a 17th-century manor house in East Grinstead, West Sussex, and the UK headquarters of the cult.
For two weeks, the room was locked. The German had been placed on an 'isolation watch'--or what Scientologists more informally refer to as a 'baby watch.' It is a treatment that was prescribed by the founder of the cult, L. Ron Hubbard, a science fiction writer, for members showing signs of psychosis or mental ill- health--people who are, literally, plagued by evil spirits. It is the last resort for dealing with difficult Scientologists. It is a treatment that the organisation has so far kept secret. The subject of the watch is observed at all times, and not allowed to talk to anybody. He or she is, in the language of the cult, 'muzzled.' Our witnesses, who have asked to remain anonymous, remember that the German was sometimes incontinent and that they had to wash him down at the sink in the otherwise bare room. The five people who guarded him were only allowed to communicate with him in writing. Eventually he was allowed to return to Germany....
For the past few months, The Independent has been investigating claims that the cult employs quasi-psychological techniques that are possibly illegal and potentially dangerous to the long-term health of its more vulnerable members....
The 'baby-watching' incident with the German student occurred in 1991. But the technique has been used more recently, according to confidential church documents dating from September 1993, which have been leaked to The lndependent . These show that the Scientologists mounted an internal investigation after a baby watch conducted on another German, again at Saint Hill, last year. The investigation was instigated because the woman put in isolation was already suffering from an acute mental disorder--in the terminology used by the investigating officer, she was Type III, which translates as 'insane.' She went insane, according to the document, while she was working for the organisation in Europe. In early 1993, she arrived in Saint Hill and was put on a baby watch because she was thought to be a 'security risk.' Her boyfriend was put in charge of the watch. But something went badly wrong, and the watch was 'very extended' because of incompetence by local officials, reports the document. It is not clear whether she was locked in a room throughout or allowed, as is sometimes the case, to walk around during the watch. There seems to be some dispute about whether the local staff were adequately trained to deal with such a case, and permission for her 'treatment' finally had to come directly from the American leadership of the cult.
Several of the most senior officers of the British arm of the cult were blamed for allowing this woman to remain a member of the cult--according to the internal memo, she apparently had a history of drug abuse. These senior members were ordered to attend an internal tribunal. If found guilty of failing to ensure the 'security' of the member, they will be demoted and sentenced to a period of 'rehabilitation' through hard labour. According to the report, it seems that the woman escaped from Saint Hill, was arrested by police and then returned to Germany.
One former senior cult official who worked in the Californian section of the organisation was involved in several baby watches. On one occasion, a woman staff member was put in isolation after she started throwing furniture out of the window of her flat, which overlooked Hollywood Boulevard. She was then locked in her room. 'We had to take all the furniture out of the room, strip it completely and leave her in there on her own for more than a week,' the official said. 'She was just crazy, talking to herself and screaming.' This woman had been engaged in one of the most demanding of the Scientology courses, during which students are taught that 75 million years ago the earth was part of a galactic confederation ruled by an evil prince called Xenu. He shipped the inhabitants of 76 planets to earth. The spirits (or thetans) of these extra-terrestrials inhabit the souls of contemporary human beings and have to be exorcised.
Dr. Betty Tylden, a retired consultant psychiatrist who is regularly
called as an expert court witness on cults, has treated Scientologists
recovering from the effects of baby watches--both the victims and the
guards. She has seen several in the past six months alone. 'People are
terribly frightened of it,' she said. 'They come out of it suffering from
something very similar to Post- traumatic Stress Disorder, the "prisoner"
syndrome. There is hyper- arousal, flashbacks, fear and obsessions. It
is very nasty, and even if it doesn't break a law, it is a gross curtailment
of an individual's liberty' (Kelsey and Ricks, 1994).
V. DIANETICS'S AND SCIENTOLOGY'S HISTORIES OF UNLICENSED MEDICAL
... the New Jersey State Board of Medical Examiners accused the Hubbard
Dianetic Research Foundation, Inc., of 'operating a school for the treatment
of disease without a license' in January, 1951 ( Elizabeth Daily Journal
, 1951a), which contributed to the organization's departure from
Elizabeth, New Jersey in April-- prior to its pending trial in May (
Elizabeth Daily Journal , 1951b). In late March, 1953, two Dianetics
and Scientology practitioners were arrested, along with the confiscation
of an E-meter, as part of an investigation into 'running an unlicensed
school and practicing medicine without licenses' ( Detroit News
, 1953, Detroit Free Press , 1953; see Pickering, 1953). Likewise,
in late 1953 or early 1954, a Glendale, California Dianeticist or Scientologist
apparently spent ten days in jail for "'practicising medicine without
a license'" (quoted in Aberree , 1954: 4).
US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) seized and destroyed 21,000 tablets
of a compound known as Dianazene, marketed by an agency associated with
the Founding Church of Scientology in Washington, the Distribution Center,
claiming that they were falsely labeled as a preventative and treatment
of 'radiation sickness' (Wallis, 1976: 190).
The device should bear a prominent, clearly visible notice warning that any person using it for auditing or counseling of any kind is forbidden by law to represent that there is any medical or scientific basis for believing or asserting that the device is useful in the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of any disease. It should be noted in the warning that the device has been condemned by a United States District Court for misrepresentation and misbranding under Food and Drug laws, that use is permitted only as a religious activity, and that the E-meter is not medically or scientifically capable of improving the health or bodily functions of anyone (United States District Court, District of Columbia, 1971: 364).
Worth mentioning is the fact that the label subsequently appearing on
E-meters fails to state that the devices were condemned by the court for
misrepresentation and misbranding.
FURTHER AFFIANT SAITH NOT.
Stephen A. Kent, Ph.D.
CITY OF EDMONTON
PROVINCE OF ALBERTA
The foregoing instrument was acknowledged before me this 6 th
day of January 2000, by Stephen A. Kent, whom I know professionally
and who did take an affirmation.
My commission expires_______
Aberree . "Scientology Acts to Legalize As Religion. Three
Churches Given Charters by New Jersey." 1 (1), April, 1954: 1, 4.
Angelis, Ioannis. 1996. "Summary of Judge Angelis' Report."
4pp; Downloaded from: http://w4u.eexi.gr/~antbos/RAIDED.HTM
on December 30, 1999.
Anonymous. n.d. "Rehabilitation Project Force[.] RPF Waiver." [No Publisher]. 1p.
Armstrong, Gerry. 1982. "Affidavit of Gerry Armstrong." Filed in Orange County, California for the United States District Court , Middle District of Florida, Tampa Division. "Tonya Burden, Plaintiff v. Church of Scientology of California, Defendants. (June 25): 8pp.
Atack, Jon. 1990. A
Piece of Blue Sky: Scientology, Dianetics and L. Ron Hubbard Exposed
. New York: Lyle Stuart. Bailey, Ann. n.d. [circa 1978 to 1983].
Behar, Richard. 1986. "The Prophet and Profits of Scientology." Forbes . (October 27): 314-322.
Boards of Directors of the Churches of Scientology. 1977. "The Rehabilitation Project Force." Sea Organization Flag Order 3434RB. Revised by Ens. Susan Walker, I/C, and Lt. (jg) Art Webb, 2nd; Re-Revised by Commodore's Messenger; Approved by L. Ron Hubbard, Commodore. (January 7, 1974; Revised August 21, 1976; Re-Revised May 30, 1977): 14pp.
------. 1980. "RPF Graduation Requirements Checklist."
Flag Order 3434-RC-56 (Written by Tech Comps Pjt I/C and Snr C/S
Int for Int Pgms Chief CMO Int; Approved by D/CO CMO Int and CO CMO Int).
(March 17): 13pp.
Burden, Tonya. 1980. "Affidavit." Signed in Las Vegas, Nevada
(January 25): 12pp.
Charity Commission. 1999a. "Application for Registration as a Charity
by The Church of Scientology (England and Wales)." Decision of the
Charity Commissioners for England and Wales.... (November 17): 49pp; Downloaded
from: http://188.8.131.52/coi/coipress.nsf> on December 31, 1999.
------. 1999b. "Decision of the Commissioners [Regarding the] Application
by the Church of Scientology (England and Wales) for Registration as a
Charity." Summary. (December 9): 5pp.; Downloaded from: <http://184.108.40.206/coi/coipress.nsf>
on December 31, 1999; also Downloaded from: < email@example.com>
in the <alt.religion.scientology> Newsgroup on December 9, 1999.
Church of Scientology of California. 1978. What is Scientology?
Los Angeles: Publications Organization United States.
Church of Scientology Flag Service Organization, Inc. 1992. "The
Flag Land Base News & Events." 9 No. 1.
Church of Scientology International. 1992. What is Scientology?
Los Angeles: Bridge Publications, Inc.
------. 1994. The Scientology Handbook . Compiled by the LRH
Compilations Staff. Los Angeles: Bridge Publications, Inc.
------. 1996. "What is the Rehabilitation Project Force?"
Homepage on the World Wide Web: 1p.
Church of Scientology of California. 1978. What is Scientology?
Los Angeles: Publications Organization United States.
Church of Scientology of Minnesota v. Department of Health, Education
and Welfare. 1971. "Order." No. 4-69 Civ. 86 (341 F.Supp. 563).
(July 20): 563-569.
City of Clearwater Commission. 1982. "Hearings Re: The Church of
Scientology." Witness: Lori Taverna. (May 6): 2-109--2-229.
Corydon, Bent and L. Ron Hubbard, Jr. 1987. L Ron Hubbard: Messiah
or Madman? Secaucus, New Jersey: Lyle Stuart.
CSI [Church of Scientology International]. 1997. "Ron The Writer."
Advertisement in Source Issue 109: 27.
Detroit Free Press . 1953. "Dianetics Pair Pleads Innocent."
(April 10): 10.
Detroit News . 1953. "Police Hold 2 in Raid on 'Dianetics
School.'" (March 26): 1.
Elizabeth Daily Journal . 1951a. "N. J. Starts Action
Against Dianetics." Section 1 (January 15): 5.
------. 1951b. "Dianetics Group to Quit City Because 'We're Not
Wanted.'" Section 2(April 3): 26.
Flag Crew Church of Scientology Flag Service Org, Inc. 1989. "FLAG
News & Events." 6 No. 3 (October).
Freed, David and Eugene Ahn. 1990. "Man Held Mentally Ill Captive
in Home, Police Say." Los Angeles Times (January 7): B1,
Gazette [Phoenix, Arizona]. 1955a. "Medicine Charge Filed;
Bond Given." (September 5).
------. 1955b. "Woman Sues Over Damage To Property." (May
Helfand, Duke. 1997. "Hubbard Texts Approved for School Use." Los Angeles Times (July 29): B1, B4.
Hubbard, L. Ron. 1950a. "Dianetics: The Evolution of a Science."
Astounding Science Fiction XLV No. 3 (May): 43ff.
------. 1950b. Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health
. 23 rd Printing, July, 1979. Los Angeles: The Church of
Scientology of California Publications Organization.
------. 1952. "Electronics Gives Life to Freud's Theory."
Journal of Scientology Issue I-G: 5.
------. 1953. "Standard Operating Procedure 8: Scientology 8-8008."
Scientology Council Data Sheet #016 (May 26): [10 pp.].
------. 1955. "Two Way Communication in Action." Professional
Auditors Bulletin 44 (January 21): 3pp.
------. 1956. "That Branch of Psychology Which Treats of [sic]
Human Ability." Scientology Information Booklet. [No Place or Publisher]:
[i + 10pp.].
------. 1960. "New Definition of Psychosis." Hubbard Communications
Office Bulletin (August 25): 1p.
------. 1961. "Johannesburg Security Check." Hubbard Communications
Office Policy Letter (April 7): 242-245.
------. 1965. " Search and Discovery
." Hubbard Communications Office Bulletin , Reissued on
November 20, 1987 with Typographical Corrections. (November 24): 4pp.
------. 1966a. "Psychosis, Neurosis and Psychiatrists."
Reality 40: 3-6.
------. 1966b. "Psychotics." Reality 37: [2-7].
------. 1968. "The War." Executive Directive From L. Ron
Hubbard . LRH ED 55 Int (November 29): 2pp.
------. 1969. "Dianetic Assists." Hubbard Communications
Office Bulletin , Revision of April 2 (May 14): 4pp.
------. 1970a. "Instruction Protocol Official." Hubbard
Communication Office Bulletin (September 2): 3pp.; Re-Issue of a
Document from November 20, 1950).
------. 1970b. "My Own Objectives." Executive Directive
From L. Ron Hubbard . LRH ED 119 INT (August 27): 3pp.
------. 1970c. "Psychosis." Hubbard Communications Office
Bulletin (November 28): 4pp.
------. 1974a. "The Technical Breakthrough of 1973! The Introspection
RD." Hubbard Communications Office Bulletin , Revisions
of Versions Published on January 23, 1974 and February 10, 1974. (November
1): 8pp; Reprinted in L. Ron Hubbard, The Technical Bulletins of Dianetics
and Scientology , Volume 8 (1972-1975). Copenhagen: Scientology Publications,1976:
------. 1974b. "Introspection RD[:] Additional Actions."
Hubbard Communications Office Bulletin , (February 20): 2pp; Reprinted
in L. Ron Hubbard, The Technical Bulletins of Dianetics and Scientology
, Volume 8 (1972-1975). Copenhagen: Scientology Publications,1976:
------. 1976. Modern Management Technology Defined . Copenhagen:
New Era Publications.
------. 1991. "The Technical Breakthrough of 1973! The Introversion
Rundown." Hubbard Communications Office Bulletin , Revision
of 23 January 1974RB. (April 25): 1-24.
Kent, Stephen A. 1996. " Scientology's
Relationship with Eastern Religious Traditions ." Journal
of Contemporary Religion 11 No. 1: 21-36.
------. 1999a. " The
Globalization of Scientology: Influence, Control and Opposition in Transnational
Markets ." Religion 29: 147-169.
------. 1999b. " Scientology-Is
This a Religion? " Marburg Journal of Religion 4 No.
1 (July): 11pp. (electronic journal).
Kelsey, Tim and Mick Ricks. 1994. "The Prisoners of Saint Hill."
The Independent (January 31); Downloaded from < http://www.snafu.de/~tilman/mytery/940131_1.txt>
on December 19, 1999; also excerpted at < http://www.scientology-lies.com/babywatch.html>.
L. Ron Hubbard Library. 1996. L. Ron Hubbard The Philosopher: The
Rediscovery of the Human Soul . [No Publisher or Place].
Lee, John H. 1990. " D.A. Won't File Charges Against Man Who Kept Wife Locked Up ." Los Angeles Times (January 31): B3.
Lee, John H., and John Johnson. 1990. "Captivity Case May be Tied
to Faith." Los Angeles Times (January 13): B15, B16.
Leonard, Charles. 1951. [Untitled Lead Article.] The Dianamic
1 No. 14 (February 22): 1-2.
Los Angeles Times . 1951. "Model and Mate, Instructor
in Dianetics, Slain." (February 11): Part I, 5.
Miller, Russell. 1987. Bare-Faced Messiah. The True Story of L. Ron Hubbard . London: Michael Joseph.
Nefertiti [Pseudonym]. 1997. "The Church of Scientology or the
Guru's Gulags. Story of An Escape." http://www-2.cs.cmu.edu/~dst/Lerma/english.html.
(May). [ change to http://www.lermanet.com/cos/enggulag.html
Feb 2002 ]
O'Connell, Denis. 1954. "What is Scientology?" Certainty
1 No. 1 (January): 3-5.
Pickering, J. 1953. "Cure-All Machine Like Lie Detector."
Detroit Times (March 27).
Republic [Phoenix, Arizona]. 1955a. House Owner Sues Church."
Republic [Phoenix, Arizona]. 1955b. "9,000 Suit Settled
Here." (June 28).
Rosenblum, Anne. n. d. [pre 1995]. "Declaration of Anne Rosenblum."
Foreword by Dennis Erlich. 9pp.; Downloaded from http://wpxx02.toxiuni.wuerzburg.de/~krasel/CoS/aff_ar.htm.
Sappell, Joel and Robert W. Welkos. 1990. " Defining the Theology."
Los Angeles Times (June 24): A36.
Schomer, Homer. 1985. "Continued Deposition of Homer Schomer."
Superior Court of the State of California for the County of Los Angeles.
"Larry Wallersheim, Plaintiff vs. Church of Scientology of California,
et. al., Defendants." No. C 332 027, Volume II (April 30): 63pp.
Shelor, George-Wayne. 1984. "Ex-Members Denounce Sect Rehab Program."
Clearwater Sun (August 28): 1B, 2B.
Starkey, Norman. 1997. "School Use of Hubbard Texts" [Letter
to the Editor of the Los Angeles Times ]. (July 30).
Superior Court of the State of California for the County of Los Angeles.
1984. Church of Scientology of California, Plaintiff, vs. Gerald Armstrong,
Defendant, Mary Sue Hubbard, Intervenor. No. C 420153. "Reporters'
Transcript of Proceedings." Thursday May 10. Volume 9: 1389-1563.
Tobin, Thomas C. 1997a. " Scientology
Had Woman in Isolation ." St. Petersburg Times (February
21): 1A, 12A.
------. 1997b. " When Did She Die?
" St. Petersburg Times (May 9): 1A, 8A.
------. 1997c. " Scientology Records
at Center of Probe ." St. Petersburg Times (May 16):
United States District Court, District of Columbia, 1971. "United
States of America, Libelant, v. An Article or Device... 'Hubbard Electrometer'
or Hubbard E-Meter,' etc., Funding Church of Scientology, et. al., Claimants.
No. D.C. 1-63 (July 30); Printed in Federal Supplement 333. St.
Paul, Minnesota: West Publishing Co.: 357-369.
Wakefield, Margery. 1990. "Affidavit of Margery Wakefield."
(April 13): Downloaded from: http://www.xs4all.nl/~kspaink/mpoulter/sods/margery.html
on December 19, 1999.
Wallis, Roy. 1976. The Road to total Freedom: A Sociological Analysis
of Scientology . New York: Columbia University Press.
Watchdog Committee for the Church of Scientology International. 1982.
"The Integrity of Source." Scientology Policy Directive
19 (July 7): 1p.
Whitfield, Hana. 1989. "Affidavit."
(August 8): 11pp, downloaded from alt.religion.scientology.
Whitfield, Hana (Eltringham). 1994. "Revised Declaration of Hana Whitfield Re Motion for Costs." United States District Court, Central District of California. No.CV 91-6426 HLH (Tx). (April 4): 44pp; Downloaded from Posting by Tilman Hausherr on <alt.religion.scientology>, (April 12, 1997).
WMNF. 1996. "[ Rob
Lorei Interviews Jeff Jacobsen, Dennis Erlich, Jeff Lee, and Brian Anderson
.]" (March 7); Downloaded from http://www.lermanet.com/cos/exhibitb.html
om September 13, 1997.
Young, Stacy. 1994. "Stacy Young Affidavit." Downloaded from: http://www.sky.net/~sloth/sci/young1.affidavit on September 13, 1997.
HTML-ized by Arnie Lerma
Life and Death of Lisa McPherson